Cara membina blog yang dikuasakan oleh React dan Gatsby dalam masa lebih kurang 10 minit

Penafian: Ini ditulis untuk Gatsby Versi 1, versi 2 baru saja dikeluarkan dan beberapa perubahan telah dibuat. Saya akan mengusahakan tutorial lain untuk itu.

Gatsby adalah penjana laman web statik cepat berdasarkan ReactJS.

A penjana laman web statik (SSG) adalah kompromi antara HTML berkod keras laman statik dan ditiup CMS penuh (Content Management System), seperti Wordpress.

SSG dapat digunakan untuk menghasilkan halaman HTML untuk laman web berdasarkan kandungan (seperti blog). Yang diperlukan hanyalah data untuk kandungan halaman dan templat untuk diisi dengan kandungan.

Catatan ini akan dibahagikan kepada lima bahagian:

  1. Bermula.
  2. Membuat komponen susun atur.
  3. Membuat catatan blog.
  4. Menjana halaman baru dari data catatan blog.
  5. Buat senarai fail markdown laman web kami di halaman arahan.

Kami akan menyelami Gatsby dan beberapa ciri-cirinya dengan membuat blog statik khayalan yang disebut CodeStack. Mockup ditunjukkan di bawah. Mari pergi! ✌️

1. Bermula

Prasyarat

Pertama, pastikan anda memasang Node.js pada sistem anda. Sekiranya tidak, pergi ke nodejs.org dan pasang versi terbaru untuk sistem operasi anda.

Juga, artikel ini menganggap anda mempunyai pemahaman mengenai ReactJS.

Pasang CLI

Gatsby mempunyai alat baris perintah yang memberikan arahan berguna seperti:

  • gatsby new: untuk perancah projek Gatsby baru.
  • gatsby develop: untuk melancarkan pelayan pengembangan web yang diaktifkan dengan muat semula panas
  • gatsby build: untuk membina versi siap projek.

Untuk memasang, ketik yang berikut di terminal anda dan tekan enter:

npm install --global gatsby-cli

Mari buat folder projek codestack-blogdan arahkan terminal ke sana.

gatsby new codestack-blog && cd $_

Sekiranya anda melaksanakan gatsby developpada folder projek, laman web perancah akan kelihatan seperti ini:

Menambah pemalam

Gatsby mempunyai satu set pemalam yang besar dan berkembang. Mereka pada dasarnya adalah pakej Node.js yang bersambung dengan API Gatsby.

Mereka boleh dipasang melalui NPM (Node Package Manager) di terminal, dan umumnya mempunyai tiga kategori: plugin berfungsi , sumber dan pengubah .

Pemalam berfungsi

Plugin ini memberikan fungsi tambahan di laman Gatsby atau di persekitaran pengembangannya. Untuk aplikasi kami, kami memerlukan:

  • gatsby-plugin-react-helmet: membolehkan pengubahsuaian headtag. Perhatikan bahawa ia sudah terpasang di projek perancah kami.
  • gatsby-plugin-catch-links: Memintas pautan tempatan dari markdown dan halaman lain yang tidak bertindak balas, dan melakukan pushState sisi pelanggan untuk mengelakkan penyemak imbas perlu memuat semula halaman.

Pasang pemalam, atau hanya pemalam kedua sahaja.

npm install gatsby-plugin-react-helmet gatsby-plugin-catch-links

Bila-bila masa kita menambah plugin baru, kita perlu mengemas kini gatsby-config.jsfail dengan plugin baru sehingga Gatsby mengenali dan menggunakannya. Kami menggunakan tanda belakang .

module.exports = { siteMetadata: { title: `Gatsby Default Starter`, }, plugins: [ `gatsby-plugin-react-helmet`, `gatsby-plugin-catch-links`, ],}

Pemalam sumber

Plugin ini "sumber" data dari lokasi jauh atau tempatan ke dalam apa yang dipanggil Gatsby node . Untuk menulis catatan kami di Markdown pada cakera tempatan kami, kami memerlukan:

  • gatsby-source-filesystem: sumber data mengenai fail dari sistem fail komputer anda.
npm install gatsby-source-filesystem

Kemas kini gatsby-config.jsfail:

module.exports = { siteMetadata: { title: `Gatsby Default Starter`, }, plugins: [ `gatsby-plugin-react-helmet`, `gatsby-plugin-catch-links`, { resolve: `gatsby-source-filesystem`, options: { path: `${__dirname}/src/pages`, name: 'pages', }, } ],}

Apa yang berlaku di sini? Satu optionsobjek boleh diserahkan kepada plugin untuk konfigurasi lagi. Kami melewati sistem fail path(iaitu di mana fail Markdown kami akan berada), dan kemudian nameuntuk fail sumber, supaya Gatsby tahu mengenai fail sumber kami dan di mana hendak menggunakan plugin pengubah.

Pemalam pengubah

Plugin ini mengubah data mentah dari nodke dalam format data yang boleh digunakan. Sebagai contoh, kita memerlukan:

  • gatsby-transformer-remark: ini mengubah catatan blog yang ditulis dalam .mdfail markdown pada cakera tempatan menjadi HTML untuk rendering.
npm install gatsby-transformer-remark

Kemas kini gatsby-config.jsfail sekali lagi.

module.exports = { siteMetadata: { title: `Gatsby Default Starter`, }, plugins: [ `gatsby-plugin-react-helmet`, `gatsby-plugin-catch-links`, { resolve: `gatsby-source-filesystem`, options: { path: `${__dirname}/src/pages`, name: 'pages', }, }, `gatsby-transformer-remark`, ],}

2. Membuat komponen Susun atur

Gatsby lets you easily create “layout components.” Layout components are sections of your site that you want to share across multiple pages. For the blog we are building, these are the header and the sidebars.

From the root folder, take a look at src/layouts. You’ll discover an index.js file where we define layout components. index.css already came with styles.

After exploring the index.js file, you’ll see that two components have already been created: Header and TemplateWrapper. In TemplateWrapper, we wrap the contents of our site with layout components that we want to be present across multiple pages.

This is made possible by the children() props. It will render all non-layout components of our site where it is placed. Notice that unlike React children props, the children prop passed to layout components is a function and needs to be executed.

First of all, create a new folder and CSS file at src/styles/layout-overide.css. Add to the list of imports in the index.js file. We need to Import it after index.css to override some existing style rules.

import React from 'react'import PropTypes from 'prop-types'import Link from 'gatsby-link'import Helmet from 'react-helmet'
import './index.css'import "../styles/layout-overide.css";

Open layout-overide.css and paste the following styles rules. No need to figure these out.

* { background: #f5f5f5; color: black;}html { height: 100%;}
body { height: 100%; border: 5px solid #ffdb3a;}
h1 { font-size: 1.5rem; line-height: 0.5rem;}
p, div { font-size: 16px;}

Update the header component.

const Header = () => ( 

CodeStack

);

Also, create a Sidebar component.

const Sidebar = (props) => (
{props.title}. {props.description} 
);

We desire the Sidebar and rendered {children()} components to behave in a responsive way like this:

Since there’s no easy way to define media queries in React, I found a library called react-media, a CSS media query component for React. Install it.

npm install --save react-media

It provides a ia> component that listens for matches to a CSS media query and renders stuff based on whether the query matches or not.

Add it to the list of imports in our file.

import Media from 'react-media'

Lets layout everything in ( Header, Sidebar, and children() components) the way we wish in TemplateWrapper. Make the following changes (pardon the shameless plug of my name):

const TemplateWrapper = ({ children }) => ( {matches => matches ? ( {children()} ) : ( {children()} 
 ) } );

Whats happening in that monolithic block of code? React media is using a Ternary operation to determine what to render based on a maxWidth of 848px . When the screen matches the width, only Header and children() components are rendered.

 {matches => matches ? ( ...stuff to render... ) : ( ...stuff to render... ) } 

If you noticed, we also used Flexbox to layout the positions of the children() and Sidebar components.

Run gatsby develop on the terminal and our static blog should look this way now:

3. Creating Blog posts

Now lets get into creating actual blog posts. Gatsby utilizes GraphQL to fetch data from one or many sources such as your local disk, Wordpress API, and so on.

Personally, I like the fact that I can create a static blog and fetch content from a WordPress API. My client has access to the Wordpress Editor where he creates posts, and I avoid dealing with all the hassles of developing a Wordpress site.

In this post, we will load the data from Markdown files we will create on our local disk. The gatsby-source-filesystem plugin we configured earlier expects our content to be in src/pages, so that’s exactly where we’ll put it!

A typical practice for blog posts is to name the folder something like MM-DD-YYYY-title. You can name it whatever you like or just place a markdown file inside the /pages folder.

Let’s create a folder src/pages/12–22–2017-first-post, and place an index.md inside. Write:

---path: "/hello-world"date: "2017-07-12T17:12:33.962Z"title: "My First Gatsby Post"---
Oooooh-weeee, my first blog post!
First post Ipsum is a major key to success. Congratulations, you played yourself. Surround yourself with angels. Celebrate success right, the only way, apple. The key is to drink coconut, fresh coconut, trust me. Egg whites, turkey sausage, wheat toast, water. Of course they don’t want us to eat our breakfast, so we are going to enjoy our breakfast. 

The block surrounded in dashes is referred to as frontmatter. The data we specify here, as well as other Markdown files, will be recognized by the gatsby-transformer-remark plugin.

The plugin will convert the frontmatter metadata part of your markdown file to frontmatter and the content part (Yippeeee, my first blog post!) to HTML.

When we begin generating blog pages directly from markdown files in section 4 (next section), path will be used to specify the URL path to render the file. For instance, the markdown file above will be rendered at localhost:8000/hello-world.

Before that, lets create a template that will render any markdown file into its own blog page. Create the file src/templates/blog-post.js (please create thesrc/templates folder).

import React from "react";import Helmet from "react-helmet";
export default function Template({ data }) { const post = data.markdownRemark; return ( 

{post.frontmatter.title}

);}

We’ve set up the Template component to receive a data object which will come from the GraphQL query we are about to write.

Once again, the GraphQL query is needed to fetch data into the component. The result of the query is injected by Gatsby into the Template component as data and markdownRemark.

We will find that the markdownRemark property contains all the details of the Markdown file.

Lets now actually make the query. It should be placed below the Template component:

export const pageQuery = graphql` query BlogPostByPath($path: String!) { markdownRemark(frontmatter: { path: { eq: $path } }) { html frontmatter { date(formatString: "MMMM DD, YYYY") path title } } }`;

If you’re not familiar with GraphQL, I’ll try to break down what’s going on here. To learn more about GraphQL, consider this excellent resource.

GraphQL is just Facebook’s idea of a certain type of server. They’ve written a specification on the kind of requests that can be sent to that server and how the server should respond. GraphQL’s API is better than REST, because you describe the exact data the client-side needs so there’s no more under-fetching or over-fetching of data.

This means you have to create your own GraphQL server. Fortunately for us, GatsbyJS comes with its own GraphQL server out of the box.

In the code above, BlogPostByPath is the underlying query which will result in a blog post being returned. It will be returned as data for injection into the Template component.

We pass BlogPostByPath the $path argument to return a blog post related to the path we are currently viewing.

Furthermore, recall markdownRemark transformed our markdown files. It will be treated as a property whose contents will be available via data.markdownRemark.

We could access the HTML via data.markdownRemark.html. Also, the frontmatter content we created with a block of dahes can be accessed via data.markdownRemark.title etc.

The entire blog-template.js should look like this:

import React from "react";import Helmet from "react-helmet";
export default function Template({ data }) { const post = data.markdownRemark; return ( 

{post.frontmatter.title}

);}
export const pageQuery = graphql` query BlogPostByPath($path: String!) { markdownRemark(frontmatter: { path: { eq: $path } }) { html frontmatter { date(formatString: "MMMM DD, YYYY") path title } } }`;

At this point:

  • We have a bunch of plugins installed to perform some utilities as well as load files off of disk and transform Markdown to HTML.
  • We have a single, lonely Markdown file that will be rendered as a blog post.
  • We have a React template for rendering blog posts in a layout, as well as a wired up GraphQL to query for blog post data and inject the React template with the queried data.

Sweet!

4. Generating new pages from blog post data.

Gatsby provides a Node API, which provides functionality for creating dynamic pages from blog posts. This API is exposed in thegatsby-node.js file in the root directory of your project. This file could export several Node APIs but we are interested in the createPages API.

Utilize the following block of code snippet as provided in the official docs (Note that blogPostTemplate path was set to reflect ours):

const path = require('path');
exports.createPages = ({ boundActionCreators, graphql }) => { const { createPage } = boundActionCreators;
const blogPostTemplate = path.resolve(`src/templates/blog-post.js`);
return graphql(`{ allMarkdownRemark( sort: { order: DESC, fields: [frontmatter___date] } limit: 1000 ) { edges { node { excerpt(pruneLength: 250) html id frontmatter { date path title } } } } }`) .then(result => { if (result.errors) { return Promise.reject(result.errors); }
result.data.allMarkdownRemark.edges .forEach(({ node }) => { createPage({ path: node.frontmatter.path, component: blogPostTemplate, context: {} // additional data can be passed via context }); }); });}

Check if it works. I recommend closing your broswer window, stoppingthe gatsby develop server from the terminal using ctrl c. Now run gatsby develop again and open //localhost:8000/hello-world.

Create another file src/pages/24–12–2017-learning-grid/index.md

---path: "/another-one"date: "2017-07-12T17:12:33.962Z"title: "My Second Gatsby Post"---
In life there will be road blocks but we will over come it. Special cloth alert. Don’t ever play yourself. The key to more success is to get a massage once a week, very important, major key, cloth talk.
// some css grid code 

Again, close your broswer window, stop gatsby develop server. Run gatsby develop again and open //localhost:8000/another-one. This is shown:

Go on if you wish and create your own pages. ✌

5. Create a list of our site’s markdown files in the landing page.

The default landing page that comes with the scaffolded Gatsby site is located at src/pages/index.js. This is where we would define a template, and make a query to inject it with data for the list of .md files. Do this:

import React from "react";import Link from "gatsby-link";import Helmet from "react-helmet";
import '../styles/blog-listing.css';
export default function Index({ data }) { const { edges: posts } = data.allMarkdownRemark; return ( {posts .filter(post => post.node.frontmatter.title.length > 0) .map(({ node: post }) => { return ( 

{post.frontmatter.title}

{post.frontmatter.date}

{post.excerpt}

); })} );}
export const pageQuery = graphql` query IndexQuery { allMarkdownRemark(sort: { order: DESC, fields: [frontmatter___date] }) { edges { node { excerpt(pruneLength: 250) id frontmatter { title date(formatString: "MMMM DD, YYYY") path } } } } }`;

I trust you are badass at this point and already familiar with whats going on. Note that we wrote an import above that does not exist. Now create the file /styles/blog-listing.css:

div.blog-post-preview { border-bottom: 2px solid #e6e6e6; padding-top: 1rem; padding-bottom: 1rem; margin-bottom: 1rem;}
h1 > * { font-size: 1.2rem; text-decoration-line: none;}
h2 { font-size: 0.8rem !important; font-weight: 100 !important;}

Restart the server, visit the landing page, and you should see the listing at work:

Conclusion

We have come to the end of this tutorial. Thank you for reading thus far.

This post is just the tip of the iceberg considering the amount of things you could do with Gatsby. Feel free to explore how you could implement:

  • Search functionality
  • The use of tags to categorize blog posts
  • Deploying your Gatsby site

You can grab the final source code here. Feel free to support me (devapparel.co) and look good while at it. Also, Comment or Share this post. Thanks for reading!

P.S I am working on a React book with Ohans Emmanuel that would have you master React by building 30 small projects in 30 days. If you want to stay updated on this, join the mailing list. Thanks!